Sunday, 28 June 2015

Carrier Oils Guide - Nut Oils ❧

See also:         << Carrier Oils Guide - Aromatherapy ❧ >>


Peanuts are legumes, not "true" nuts, but they share with true nuts the risk of causing allergic reactions, even in minute amounts. Pure peanut and nut-derived oils are not usually allergenic, (as they do not typically contain the proteinaceous part of the plant), but avoiding them may be safer, as serious peanut and nut allergy is widespread, oil purity cannot be guaranteed and other hypoallergenic oils are easily substituted.

COCOA BUTTER - Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is a pale-yellow, edible vegetable fat extracted from the cocoa bean, which are fermented, roasted, and then separated from their hulls. Cocoa butter has a cocoa flavor and aroma, used to make chocolate, as well as some ointments, toiletries, and pharmaceuticals. As a non-toxic solid at room temperature that melts at body temperature, is considered an ideal base for medicinal suppositories. Cocoa butter contains a high proportion of saturated fats, derived from stearic and palmitic acids. Cocoa butter, unlike cocoa solids, has no more than trace amounts of caffeine.

Cocoa butter is a major ingredient in practically all types of chocolates, dominating consumption of cocoa butter, making it become increasingly expensive. Substitutes have been designed to use as alternatives. Cocoa Butter Substitute – coconut oil or palm oil; Cocoa butter Replacer – soybean oil, rapeseed oil and cottonseed oil; Cocoa Butter Equivalent – shea butter, illipe, sal nut, palm, mango kernel fat, palm oils.

Some food manufacturers substitute less expensive materials such as vegetable oils and fats (fillers and over-sized packaging) in place of cocoa butter. Adulterated cocoa butter is indicated by its lighter color and its diminished fluorescence upon ultraviolet illumination. Unlike cocoa butter, adulterated fat tends to smear.

Cocoa butter is one of the most stable fats known. Coupled with natural antioxidants, prevents it from going rancid, giving it a storage life of two to five years. The velvety texture, pleasant fragrance and emollient properties of cocoa butter have made it a popular ingredient in products for the skin, such as soaps and lotions.

The moisturizing abilities of cocoa butter are frequently recommended for prevention of stretch marks in pregnant women, treatment of chapped or burned skin and lips, and as a daily moisturizer to prevent dry, itchy skin. Cocoa butter's moisturizing properties are also said to be effective for treating mouth sores.

COCONUT OIL - Coconut oil or Copra oil is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of matured coconuts, harvested from the coconut palm. Before electrical lighting, coconut oil was the primary oil used for illumination in India.

It has various applications in food, medicine, and industry. Because of its high saturated fat content it is slow to oxidize and, thus, resistant to turning rancid, lasting up to two years without spoiling.

Coconut oil contains a large proportion of lauric acid, a saturated fat that raises total blood cholesterol levels by increasing both the amount of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.

Coconut oil is commonly used in cooking, especially for frying, and is a common flavor in many South Asian dishes. With a sweet to nutty flavor, it has become popular in baked goods, pastries, and sautés, and is used by movie theatre chains to pop popcorn.

Coconut oil can be used as a skin moisturizer, helping with dry skin and reduces protein loss when used in hair. Coconut oil is an important base ingredient for the manufacture of soap. Soap made with coconut oil tends to be hard, although it retains more water than soaps made with other oils, therefore increasing yields. It is more soluble in hard water and salt water than other soaps allowing it to lather more easily. A basic coconut oil soap is clear when melted and a bright white when hardened.

A repellent made from coconut oil may be effective to prevent infestation of sand fleas from penetrating the skin.

HAZELNUT OIL - Hazelnut oil comes from the nut of the hazel, also known as cobnut or filbert nut. A cob is spherical to oval, with an outer fibrous husk surrounding a smooth shell. A filbert is more elongated, being about twice as long as it is round. The kernel of the seed is edible and used raw or roasted, or ground into a paste. Hazelnut oil is pressed from hazelnuts is used as a cooking oil for its strong flavor.

Hazelnuts are used in confectionery to make praline, and used in combination with chocolate for chocolate truffles.

Hazelnuts have a significant place in terms of nutrition and health because of the composition of fats (primarily oleic acid), protein, carbohydrates, vitamins (vitamin E), minerals, dietary fibre, phytosterol (beta-sitosterol), and antioxidant phenolics such as flavan-3-ols.

Because of its high vitamin E content, hazelnut oil is slow to go rancid, as the antioxidant protection of the vitamin E preserves it. Those who ate more than an ounce a day of hazelnuts, walnuts and almonds had up a 30 percent reduced risk of heart attack and stroke.

Hazelnut oil contains significant amounts of thiamine and vitamin B6, rich in protein and unsaturated fat.

Hazelnut oil's astringent properties help absorb oils and shrink pores, while anti-bacterial components fight skin bacteria, helping to reduce blackheads and pimples. Its natural astringent properties help calm over-active oil glands while toning and moisturizing the skin.

MACADAMIA OIL - Macadamia is a genus of four species of trees indigenous to Australia. Macadamia grow as small to large evergreen trees 6–39 feet tall, with leaves arranged in whorls of three to six, elliptical in shape. The flowers are white, pink or purple, long and slender (10–15 mm in length). The fruit is a very hard and woody, containing one or two seeds.

The seeds are a valuable food crop. Compared with other common edible seeds such as almonds and cashews, macadamias are high in fat and low in protein. They have the highest amount of monounsaturated fats and contain approximately 22% of omega-7 palmitoleic acid, which has biological effects similar to monounsaturated fat. They also contain 9% protein, 9% carbohydrate, and 2% dietary fiber, as well as calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, selenium, iron, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin.

Macadamia oil is prized for containing omega-7, which makes it a botanical alternative to mink oil. This relatively high content of palmitoleic acid and macadamia's high oxidative stability, make it a desirable ingredient in cosmetics, especially for skincare.

Only three of the species, are of commercial importance and can be eaten raw. The remainder possess poisonous inedible seeds. The toxicity is due to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides, which can be removed by prolonged leaching.

Macadamias are toxic to dogs. Ingestion may result in macadamia toxicosis, which is marked by weakness and hind limb paralysis with the inability to stand, occurring within 12 hours of ingestion. Depending on the quantity ingested and size of the dog, symptoms may also include muscle tremors, joint pain and severe abdominal pain. In high doses of toxin, opiate medication may be required for symptom relief until the toxic effects diminish. Full recovery is usually within 24 to 48 hours.

Macadamias can cause severe allergic reactions in humans, as do many other seeds. These reactions can vary from a slight swelling of the lips, to an itchy throat or in extreme cases, anaphylaxis. Caution should be used when around children or adults, or persons with known allergies to tree nuts. A skin test can provide information about allergies.

PEANUT OIL - Peanut oil, also known as groundnut oil or arachis oil, is a mild-tasting vegetable oil derived from peanuts. The oil is available in refined, unrefined, cold-pressed, and roasted varieties, the latter with a strong peanut flavor and aroma, similar to sesame oil.

At the 1900 Paris Exhibition, the Otto Company, demonstrated that peanut oil could be used as a source of fuel for the diesel engine; this was one of the earliest demonstrations of biodiesel technology.

It is often used in Chinese, South Asian and Southeast Asian cuisine for general cooking and added flavor. Its major component fatty acids are oleic acid (46.8% as olein), linoleic acid (33.4% as linolein), and palmitic acid (10.0% as palmitin). Antioxidants such as vitamin E are sometimes added to improve the shelf life of the oil.

Peanut oil, as with other vegetable oils, can be used to make soap and is safe for use as a massage oil.

Most highly refined peanut oils remove the peanut allergens and have been shown to be safe for the vast majority of individuals with peanut allergies. However, cold-pressed peanut oils may not remove the allergens and thus could be highly dangerous to people with peanut allergy. Since the degree of processing for any particular product is often unclear, it is best to avoid use.

PECAN OIL - Pecan oil is an edible pressed oil extracted from the pecan nut. Neutral in flavor, it takes on the flavor of whatever seasoning is being used with it. Pecan oil contains 9.5% saturated fat, which is less than in olive oil (13.5%), peanut oil (16.90%) or corn oil (12.70%).

Pecan oil is considered a healthy oil as it is rich in monounsaturated fats, specifically oleic acid, (52.0) and low in saturated fats, as well as linoleic acid (36.6%), small amounts of palmitic (7.1%), stearic (2.2%) and linolenic acids (1.5%). The overall balance of fatty acids in the oil may reduce LDL cholesterol (also known as "bad" cholesterol) and the risk of heart disease.

Pecan oil is a light weight oil and is usually pale yellow in color. Generally pecan oil does not contain preservatives or additives, is much lighter than olive oil, making it well suited for everyday cooking. The mild nutty flavor gives this oil the unique ability to enhance the flavor of ingredients, making it a popular component of salad dressings and dips. Pecan oil is a good substitute for butter and other cooking oils, making it suitable for baking. It is recommended that the oil be refrigerated after opening to increase shelf life and reduce rancidity.

It is also used as a massage oil and in aromatherapy applications.

Pecan oil can sometimes be hard to find in local grocery stores because it is considered a specialty oil; however, it can be purchased online through a number of websites.

WALNUT OIL - Walnut oil is extracted from English walnuts, also known as Persian walnuts. Each 100.0g of oil provides about 63.3g polyunsaturated fatty acids, 22.8g monounsaturated fats, and 9.1g saturated fats. It contains no cholesterol. It is about 22.2% monounsaturated oleic acid, an omega-9 fatty acid, 52.9% linoleic acid, an essential polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid, and 10.4% alpha linolenic acid, which supplies the body with needed omega-3 fatty acids, another form of polyunsaturated fatty acid essential to human nutrition.

Walnut oil is light-colored and delicate in flavor and scent, with a nutty quality. Chefs sometimes use walnut oil for pan frying, but is usually avoided for high temperature cooking (heating tends to reduce the flavor and nutrition value, also rapidly destroying the antioxidants), producing a slight bitterness. Walnut oil is most valuable in cold dishes such as salad dressings.

Walnut oil was one of the most important oils used by Renaissance painters, with its short drying time and lack of yellow tint, making it a good oil paint base thinner and brush cleaner.

Some woodworkers favor walnut oil as a finish for implements that will come in contact with food, such as cutting boards and wooden bowls because of its edibility. The oil is typically combined with beeswax (1/3 oil to 2/3 beeswax).

It is also used as a massage oil and in aromatherapy applications.

Walnut oil can sometimes be hard to find in local grocery stores because it is considered a specialty oil; however, it can be purchased online through a number of websites.

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